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December 2016

Volume 2  Issue 1

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Research Article

High Prevalence of Syphilis, Hepatitis B and HIV among Men who have Sex with Men in Tanga region, Northern Tanzania

Hamimu Omary Kigumi, Samwel Mtullu, Maseke Mgabo, Michael J. Mahande, Jenny Renju, Damian J. Damian, Sia E. Msuya*

HIV continues to be a major public health concern especially in sub Saharan Africa (SSA). The setting has 66% of the 36.9 million people living with HIV and 70% of the two million new infections that occurred up to the end of 2014. A combination of multiple behavioral and medical interventions including antiretroviral treatment for HIV have led to a decline of new HIV infections amongst adults and children in SSA. In SSA between 2000 to 2014 adult HIV infection rates declined by 41% and by 48% amongst children. In Tanzania the national adult HIV prevalence have also declined from 7% in 2003/04 to 5.3% in 2011/12.

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Case Report

Soft tissue Abscess due Nocardia abscessus and Cryptococcus neoformans in an HIV Infected Patient: First Case Reported and Literature Review

Corti M*, Villafañe MF, Benchetrit A, Messina F, Negroni R

Several clinical trials showed that combination antiretroviral therapy decrease the viral replication, preserve the immune system and reduce the morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients. However, in those who not receive highly active antiretroviral therapy or those individuals who do not know their personal serological status to human immunodeficiency virus infection and those who have a poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy, opportunistic infections continue to be a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients.


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Case Report

Anal Squamous Cell Cancer in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 Infection: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

Zola Nlandu#, Shayna Sarosiek, Qing Zhao, Gustavo Mercier, Angela Kuhnen, and Kevan L Hartshorn*

Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) is predominantly seen in West Africa, but has increasing incidence in the United States and Europe. Differentiating an HIV-2 infection from the more well-known human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection may be challenging, but is an important distinction due to differences in the natural history and treatment of the two viral infections. Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is known to be a Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) driven malignancy, but is not classified as an AIDS defining illness, despite an increased incidence of ASCC in HIV-seropositive individuals.

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Case Report

A Case of Cardiomegaly seen on a Routine Chest X-ray

Dushyant Mital*

This is a case of cardiomegaly seen on a routine baseline chest x-ray in a fit and well 47 year old HIV positive man who is a bodybuilder and has admitted to injecting steroid use. Subsequent echocardiography confirmed concentric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and cardiac MRI. There was a reduction of LV mass and LV end diastolic mass 6 months later after weight based detraining and no injecting steroid use which can be considered as a useful preventive measure of possible future complications. Routine chest X-rays should be considered for all patients living with HIV.

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