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August 2015

Volume 1  Issue 1

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Editorial 

Impact of Virtual Screening on HIV Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Discovery

Wan-Gang Gu*

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has become oneof the most dangerous viruses after 30 year’s spread inthe world. The highly active antiviral therapy (HAART) iseffective in suppressing the virus, but it is impossible to cure the infection thoroughly.

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Research Article 

Health Literacy: Challenges to HIV Knowledge

Corless, I.B*., Sefcik, E. F., Hamilton, M.J., Lindgren, T., Dawson, C.R., Nicholas, P.K., Holzemer, W., Mogobe, D., Kemppainen, J., Webel, A., Nokes, K., Rivero-Mendez, M., Cuca, Y.,  Winter, S., Jiang, W., Matshediso, E., Sanzearo Eller, L., Reyes, D., Johnson, M.O., Huang, E., Solis, S., Kirksey, K. M. & Wantland, D.

Health literacy is of concern to patients and their health care providers. Failure to comprehend the information given by the health care provider can result in sub-optimal outcomes for the care-giving relationship and more particularly for the patient. Health literacy is defined by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) as “The degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions” (p.4).

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Research Article 

Pharmacokinetic Exposure and Virologic Response in HIV-1 Infected Pregnant Women Treated with Lopinavir/Ritonavir: Aids Clinical Trials Group Protocol A5153S: A substudy TO A5150

Beverly E. Sha, MD*, Camlin Tierney, PhD, Xin Sun, MS, Alice Stek. M.D., Susan E. Cohn, M.D., M.P.H., Robert W. Coombs, M.D., Ph.D., Barbara Bastow, B.S.N., Francesca T. Aweeka, Pharm.D, and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 5153s Team

Current Department of Health and Human Services United States guidelines recommend combination antiretroviral therapy for all pregnant women to prevent perinatal transmission of HIV. Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) twice daily remains a preferred protease inhibitor (PI) for antiretroviral naïve pregnant women. Drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion constitute the basis of drug pharmacokinetics and may all undergo changes during pregnancy. Changes become increasingly pronounced as pregnancy advances and peak during the third trimester.

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Research Article 

The Presence of Tuberculosis at the Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy Predicts Retention in Care: A Retrospective Review of Patients on ART in Nigeria

Joseph Enegela*, Apata Jummai, Epoupa Flora, Onu Eugene, Olutola Ayodotun

Tuberculosis remains an important opportunistic infection among patients that are HIV-positive, and it continues to be a significant cause of mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Its presence in patients with HIV determines the threshold for commencing antiretroviral therapy, and it is important in predicting long term retention in care. We aimed to determine the outcomes of patients that were co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV at the commencement of antiretroviral therapy.

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Research Article

Autonomic Function is Associated with Fitness Level in HIV-Infected Individuals

Morgan H Kocher, MS, ATC, Ronald K Hetzler*, PhD, FACSM , Cecilia M Shikuma, MD, Iris F Kimura, PhD, ATC, PT, Cris D Stickley, PhD, ATC, CSCS , Rachel A Lindsey, PhD, ATC, Beau K Nakamoto, MD, PhD, Dominic C Chow, MD, MPH, PhD

Autonomic dysfunction is a common co-morbidity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Decreased autonomic function is linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. This dysfunction is often characterized by increased sympathetic activity, and decreased parasympathetic activity and heart rate variability (HRV).

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Review Article

Histoplasmosis in AIDS Patients in Venezuela

Maria Eugenia Landaeta-Nezer MD MSc, Sofia Mata-Essayag* MD MSc PhD, Maria Teresa Colella BSc, Vanessa Pineda BSc, Arantza Rosello BSc

Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, endemic in Venezuela, is the most frequent AIDS defining disease. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in these patients. The aim of this study was to review the demographic data, clinical features, diagnostic methods, treatment and follow-up, of patients with diagnosis of AIDS and histoplasmosis, evaluated at the Medical Mycology Department, Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Universidad Central de Venezuela, from 1994 to 2013. We collected demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data from each case.

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